Korean Lesson #1 (Sentence Pattern)

cyjh By cyjh, 8th May 2013 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/2-2lirza/
Posted in Wikinut>Guides>Languages

One of the major differences between the Korean language and the English language is the way sentences are constructed. Today, let us learn how. ^^

Sentence Order

Do you know how to read and write Korean? If not, I discussed the basics here : http://nut.bz/27h2-65-/. After learning the basics, of course, we must know how to make sentences.

Basically, words are really useless if we don’t know how to construct a sentence. In English, (when I was young) I learned like this: Learn a new word, study the meaning and the usage, then use it in a sentence. Hmmm… Well, I didn’t really care about the grammar and stuff as long as I could construct my own sentences with a subject, verb and an object (which is the typical sentence order in English.)

Some of my simple sentences are:

I like you.
He loves me.
I miss you.
He needs me.

Are they super-duper simple? Hohoho! Anyway, let’s take a look at this…

I like you. (I is the Subject, like is the Verb, and youObject)
He loves me. (He
is the Subject, loves is the Verb, and me is the Object)
I miss you. (I is the Subject, miss is the Verb, and you is the Object)
He needs me. (He is the Subject, needs is the Verb, and me is the Object)

S+V+O is one of the simplest ways to construct English sentences. However, Koreans don’t follow this pattern. Instead, they use...

S+O+V.

I like you.
I you like.
=나(는) 너(를) 좋아요

He loves me.
He me loves.
=그(는) 나(를) 사랑해요.

I miss you.
I you miss.
=나(는) 너(를) 보고 싶어요.

He needs me.
He me needs.
=그(는) 나(를) 필요 해요.

Subject and Object Particles

I guess, you noticed 는 at the end of each subject. We call it (는) subject particle. We have (는/은) as subject particles.

for subjects which end in vowels
for subjects which end in consonants.

사라(는) 사과(를) 먹었어요.
Sarah an apple ate.
( Sarah ate an apple.)

케빈(은) 사과(를) 먹었어요.
Kevin an apple ate.
(Kevin ate an apple.)

Also, you can see and after the objects. We call them object particles.

for objects which end in vowels
for objects which end in consonants

사라(는) 사과(를) 먹었어요.
Sarah an apple ate.
(Sarah ate an apple.)

사라(는) 초콜릿(을) 먹었어요.
Sarah chocolate ate.
(Sarah ate chocolate.)

Note~1:

Native Koreans usually omit the subject (and other elements as well) to sound more natural, resulting into very short sentences. It is possible if the subject is obvious and it is often used in everyday conversation.

나는 사과를 먹었다. = 사과를 먹었다.
I an apple ate. = an apple ate
(I ate an apple.) (I ate an apple)

나는 너를 보고 싶어요. = 보고 싶어요
I you miss. = miss
(I miss you.) (I miss you.)

Note~2:

I actually used verb conjugations in making those sample sentences. Usually, we find formal sentences on the internet like:

저는 당신을 사랑합니다. = I love you.
I (formal) you(formal) love (formal)

사라는 사과를 먹었다. = Sarah ate an apple.
Sarah apple ate (formal)

Note~3:

I used the verb ending ‘요’ to make the sentence polite (so you can still use it for someone older than you.) ^^

보고 싶어 + 요 - > 보고 싶어요

사랑해 + 요 -> 사랑해요

좋아 + 요 -> 좋아요

VOCABULARY RECAP:

나 - I
너 - you
저 - I (formal)
당신 - you (formal)
좋아요 - like (conjugated)
사랑해요 -love (conjugated)
보고 싶어요 - miss (conjugated)
필요 해요 - need (conjugated)
는/은 subject particles
를/을 object particles
사과 - apple
먹었어요 - ate (conjugated)
초콜릿 - chocolate


Later, I’ll try to discuss the steps on conjugating words in Korean. Whew!
But let’s just stop here for now.
If you have questions, feel free to ask. I’ll help you as much as I can. ^^

Tags

Korean Lesson, Korean Sentence Construction, Korean Sentence Order, Korean Sentence Pattern, Korean Sentence Patterns, Korean Sentences, Korean Vocabulary Words, Object Particle, Object Particles, S-O-V, S-V-O, Subject Particle, Subject Particles

Meet the author

author avatar cyjh
Cyjh is currently teaching Koreans online and offline.She wants to visit some places in Korea someday. Because of that, she is now studying her students' language and their culture as well.

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