Bodysnatcher and Corpse Resurrectionist Prototypes from the History of Crime (Part 2 of 2)

Sean_VictorydawnStarred Page By Sean_Victorydawn, 27th Apr 2014 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL
Posted in Wikinut>Guides>Science>Biology>Human Biology

This second part of this research article aims to put together all the erased, forgotten, misinformed and banished topics related to Science of Human Resurrection on a clinically dead body, and its place from the scope of Medical Criminology. This article never stands on a single certain ground, neither goes against Religious doctrines nor supports Scientific/Evolutionary theory. The aim is to be unbiased without trying to draw plain attention from either side.

Can Medicine Conquer Death?

It is quite revolutionary that the most traumatic years in Leonardo Da Vinci's life, as a Christian believer himself, occurred when he was researching on the fantastic topic of "immortality".

It was the season of the larvae moths eating bee pollens and attacking caterpillars to stop metamorphosis, when Da Vinci captured them into glass containers during several visits to Florentine Gardens, to figure out "why?". Is it in our nature to try stopping the death, even if the moths trying so?

    It was Autumn,1513 and Da Vinci was undertaking a variety of projects for Pope Leo X who was recently elected in Vatican by March,9th,1513. Pope Leo X has initiated political strategies in order to rebuild Saint Peter's Basilica, employing Leonardo Da Vinci and artist Raphael to support his papacy activities.

Digging into the study of moths, Da Vinci developed a time chart to compare the metamorphosis of a moth larvae in Autumn with the metamorphosis of a butterfly caterpillar in Spring to predict or manipulate a delay for the beginning of the Winter season. The answer was there in the Florentine Gardens, unless all the bee pollens were removed from the flower essences, the Winter wouldn't begin.

Da Vinci was only two steps away from finding the cure to death, was dissecting cadavers and was experimenting to reanimate human cadavers in living animals, which today what we call as genetic mutation ; when Pope Leo X forbade him from experimenting on the dead. For the remaining years of his life, Da Vinci worked as a painter and an instructor in Art, and was never given permission to go back to Florentine Gardens to experiment more on his thesis for the research of the undead.

Criminal Prototypes on the Dead Body: Ben Crouch Gang(Scotland) Burke and Hare(Northern Ireland)

From 1740 to 1832, freshly buried corpses were dug up and surreptitiously hawked to surgeons and anatomists in London and Edinburgh to dissect for research and teaching purposes. The resurrection trade brought together Fellows of the Royal Society and slum-dwelling criminals in an unholy alliance. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the illicit trade had become one of London's most efficiently organized departments of crime, with gang-leader Ben Crouch(his name later given to a tavern in London downtown) securing a virtual monopoly of delivery to half the teaching hospitals. In Scotland several surgeons of great eminence loved the adventure of association with desperadoes and willingly accompanied them on their nocturnal excavations. This activity of the surgeons are heard across the country, and small-time criminal gangs across U.K. have targeted the cemeteries in order to steal the corpses from the graveyards and to sell them to research surgeons for cash.

    The Crouch Gang would dig up graves, and leave them exposed; throw putrefied and unmarketable corpses and bones on to the ground; litter the place with shrouds ; and even hoist empty coffins up on the spikes on the walls to ensure that passers by noticed. (The Diary of a Resurrectionist, Swan Sonneschein, London, 1896)

By the end of 1809 Crouch made himself "King of the Resurrectionists" and achieved his approved monopoly of delivery to the hospitals. Not surprisingly, there was great public consternation about the activities of the bodysnatchers, but it was only when Northern Irish Burke and Hare introduced murder as a means of acquiring "subjects" that the authorities acted to eradicate the ghoulish practice.

According to Martin Fido(researcher/historian) the origins of body snatching took place in Scotland. In Edinburgh at the start of the 18th century advancements in medical science staged the dynasty of Alexander Monro's, father, son and grandson each successively holding the Chair of Anatomy and Surgery:

    Alexander Monro I (1697-1767) studied in Edinburgh and London, and then in Paris and Leyden. In 1719 he returned to Edinburgh as Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the Surgeons' College, and opened dissecting rooms in Surgeon's Square. In 1720 he became the university's first Professor of Anatomy, a post he yielded to his son in 1764.

    Alexander Monro II (1733-1817) earned his degree as Doctor of Medicine on October,1755 before proceeding to study abroad, visited Paris and entered Leyden University where he formed a friendship with two famous anatomists, Bernhard Siegfried Albinus and Petrus Camper. His research involved drugs given to live body and corpses, that was in the future going to guide Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (1938) and was to inspire Mary Shelley to pen Frankenstein in 1818.

Human Resurrection through Robotics: Darth Vader, Terminator, Robocop explained with Phases Of Death

Before we move on to Da Vinci's study continuation attempts by 20th century anatomists, which is a way of human resurrection through genetic mutation, first let's discuss human resurrection through robotics, an easier to grasp topic with lesser human anatomy depth and lesser possibilities to be real.

    One of the top evil-mind executions of all time takes place in the 1987 sci-fi/action feature of Paul Verhoeven's Robocop, where Officer Alex J. Murphy was brutally murdered and looked biologically dead(no pulse, no breathing).

If you are dead once but your biorhythms didn't give away the self-stored energy in your cells, can you still come back to life?

    "I screamed, but there was nothing to hear. Still I sensed that I was screaming" -Rom Houben, a testimony of resurrected humans

Even with electroconvulsive therapy, it is hard to tell when does a dead body leave earth life. In this case there are 4 levels of dying in Earth, in order of survival chances, 1 being the highest chance, 4 being the lowest:

1) Brain Death: Complete and irreversible loss of brain functions. Usually occurs from fear or shock of dying. Or if the death occurred through an instant accident unexpectedly. But when the metabolism comes over the shock, it has the capability to turn you back to life, even when you don't have medical assistance around.

2) Biological Death: Pulse and blood circulation are not measurable. When the considered dead body is put under professionally controlled electroconvulsive therapy, it's no surprise that the body will return to life, even though it might have lost many of its functions, as in the exact case of Robocop.

    "Hey Clarence, he is still alive!"

3) Circulatory Death (a.k.a. Clinical Death):

    "The question is, for how long does the heart have to stop beating before you can call someone dead?" -Dr.James Bernat

When the electroconvulsive therapy has no use, there is no blood circulation and heart stops beating. But the cells are still alive. This is arguably the case of Darth Vader, his entire body was burned, no breathing, no pulse nothing, but Anakin Skywalker had his anger that kept him alive, if you have the endurance to live, what can stop you!

4) Cellular Death:
Even though the governments delayed or banished the Genome Project, it is known solely by Genetics Engineers that, a human body can come back to life with the durability of its cells. Then, how could possibly the cells die... is the matter of how long we are allowed to live in this world. If the Global governments know the cure for cancer, and they don't release it, then it's obvious to see, nobody wants us to live. But the future is yet to come. One day, the cellular resurrection will be developed. Unless someone destroys your cells deliberately and then stops the processing of reproduction of new cells, you could be possibly saved from death. But cellular death and stopping the reproduction is the ending of all the chances of survival; after all cells were the first Earthly living organisms. A destruction of a perfect being can only be through how it is created in the first place.

Human Resurrection through Mutants: The Legacy of Leonardo Da Vinci

    "The old definition of moth was, 'anything that gradually, silently eats, consumes, or wages any other thing.' It was a verb for destruction too. . ." -Thomas Harris, Silence of the Lambs

In Harris's Silence of the Lambs, Hannibal Lecter loves moths for one particular reason. They eat everything to alter their metamorphosis into what they eat. If a moth can stop a caterpillar from turning a butterfly, then the moth can resurrect itself from death next time when it dies.

Humans don't have metamorphosis cycle, but human cells transform themselves each and every time when an old cell dies. If it is a matter of skin alteration, the science fiction thesis behind Silence Of The Lambs is that humans can resurrect themselves if they change their skins like snakes do.

A skin alteration can be identified as a mutation. And most reptiles do alter their skins in a mutation(skin renewal) period. Though it is not likely possible to collect together all the metabolism cells on the human skin in order to resurrect a dead body through its skin, the skin renewal mutation would at least extend the human life in number of years.

Human Resurrection via Mutating with Non-Mutants: Dr.Spencer Black

    Doctors Moreau and Frankenstein should make room for a new member of their league of extraordinarily grotesque gentlemen, for there is a new mad scientist in pop culture.”—Aaron Sagers, MTV Geek

Mermaid itself is not a mutant, but a fantastical creature like dragons. On the above photo and its model, the human mermaid syndrome can be seen. In the human mermaid syndrome, the legs are non-functional, and are genetically replica-coded instead of a mermaid tail. For human genes don't produce mermaid tails, the shape of the mutated legs appear humanly instead of the actual form of mermaid tail.

Just like mermaid syndrome, Siamese Twins is also another mutational syndrome. In the mythological tales two-headed fantastical creatures are common. In Astrology, the sign of Gemini is in the form of Siamese Twins. But in Earth's Nature there are more examples of animal mutations.

Philadelphia. The late 1870s. A city of cobblestone sidewalks and horse-drawn carriages. Home to the famous anatomist and surgeon Dr. Spencer Black. According to Black, both mermaid syndrome and Siamese Twins were signs of our human ancestors. The son of a grave robber anatomist, Dr. Black studied at Philadelphia’s esteemed Academy of Medicine, where he develops an unconventional hypothesis that nobody else other than his family was convinced to believe: What if the world’s most celebrated mythological beasts—mermaids, minotaurs, and satyrs— were in fact the evolutionary ancestors of humankind? This wasn't just a hypothesis, Black had the proof and systematic. In the early 1900s he produced street shows to display his anatomical tour-de-force mutating non-mutant animal forms into dead or sick human bodies, resurrecting and giving them new life, new look, new physical functions. But his mutants did not live for long time, and both died in severe pain.

References, Credits and external sources

This wikinut user contributor page was a continuation of a previous publishing from the same author, to read the first part:
Bodysnatcher and Corpse Resurrectionist Prototypes from the History of Crime (Part 1 of 2)

* from the book of "Bodysnatchers a history of the Resurrectionists, 1742-1832, Martin Fido, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, c1988." section 4 and the rest.

* from the book of "THE RESURRECTIONIST - THE LOST WORK OF DR. SPENCER BLACK by E.B. Hudspeth, Quirk Books"

* Mutant animals:

* Borough Boys Gang:

* Burke and Hare bodysnatchers:

Image, Photo, Chart, Diagram credits:
Special thanks to Raising Ecstasy
Ben Crouch Tavern London

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