Famous technological and architectural advances during the Industrial Revolution

cnwokedi By cnwokedi, 27th Sep 2010 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/1pqn69sc/
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The great scientific and technological inventions between the 17th and 19th Century induced the Industrial Revolution. The invention of the steam engine (James Watt, 1175), the Telegraph (Samuel Morse, 1836), the telephone (Alexander Graham Bell 1876, the phonograph (Thomas Edison), the Diesel Engine (Rudolf Diesel, 1893), the first aero-plane (Orville and Wilbur Wright, 1903) encouraged a rapid and forceful and transformation in all sectors lives.

Advancememt

By the Mid 19th Century, the Industrial Revolution was in full swing. It was a period of creative tumult, often named “spring of technology”, or called “the era of railway”. Ion lattice structures and the use of wrought ion became prominent in the construction sector and for decorating purposes on facades and indoor for treatment. The replacement of wood and limestone by ion lattice structure together with the newly invented Portland cement permitted the erection of buildings of gigantic height, bridges, train stations, factories. The transportation systems experienced a complete renewal. The transformation from handmade to manufactured goods changed people’s works-environment and induced the migration into the towns. The impact of industrialization had spread from Europe and northeastern America by the Mid 18th Century.
1779, the first ion cast bridge, was erected across the Severn River in Coalbrookdale, England (Philip James Loutherbourg the Younger painted it, in 1801).
1824, the Portland cement, a fire resistant cement, and the advanced forms of ion or steel bars led to the development of reinforced concrete in the 19th century.
1837 Euston station in London was built by Philip Hardwick (demolished 1871, rebuilt 1963).
1842 St Lazare station in Paris, remodeled by Eugène Flachat in 1889 is still operating until today (Claude Monet painted the station in action, showing a locomotive fuming and steaming at arrival in 1877).
Between 1850 and 1870, the use of cast ion emerged for facade treatment, and indoor decorations on Soho district of New York City, Milan Gallery, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris), Crystal Palace, London.
1889, the Eiffel Tower, was built for the World Fair in Paris, the leading examples of the use of ion lattice structures for architectural task.
1896, first time ion frame structures, were used for a factory building in Shrewbury, England and then for a seven story cotton mill.

http://www.helium.com/items/17 12940-eiffel-tower-paris
http://www.pevsner.co.uk/
http://www.abcgallery.com/M/mo net/monet63.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P hilip_James_de_Loutherbourg
http://www.library.gatech.edu/ archives/finding-aids/display/ xsl/VAMD004
http://www.helium.com/items/17 12940-eiffel-tower-paris
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P ortland_cement

Negative consequences and reactions

Despite the advancements in many fields, the negative consequences of the industrial revolution were obvious. Low wages, long working hours, child labor led to labor unrest, unhealthy environmental condition and the development of slums.
Titus Salt, a well-known British entrepreneur, reacted to the negative effect of the industrial. He commissioned the construction of a factory town for his textile-mills and a settlement for his workers at Saltaire in England in, designed by William Fairbain in Victorian style in 1853. UNESCO World Heritage centre preserved the settlement as a model industrial village of the 19th Century.
Sir Ebenezer Howard's (1850-1929) publication "The Garden cities of tomorrow," (1898) led to the foundation of the Garden city movement in the United Kingdom. Garden city planners approached urban planning in a different way to provide communities with a balanced environment. They proposed townships surrounded by green belts, with residential buildings beside industries, and subsistence agriculture in the centre.
Town planners all over the world used the Garden City concept like Letchworth Garden City, UK 1903, Forest Hill Garden City US 1908, Welwyn Garden City, UK 1920 as urban design principle. Examples are the Australian capital, Canberra, the model project of the Bauhaus movement, Hellerau in Germany.

http://science.jrank.org/pages /3574/Industrial-Revolution-Ef fects-Industrial-Revolution.ht ml
http://whc.unesco.org/
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/E benezer_Howard
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/G arden_City
http://www.library.cornell.edu /Reps/DOCS/howard.htm

British social reformer, artist, and architect William Morris (1834-1996) believed that the revival of the traditions of craftsman-ship had been lost during the Industrial Revolution. He pursued a come back of hand craftsman ship to enable workers to achieve satisfaction and pleasure in their work. He expressed his dream of the earthly paradise without the negative of the negative impact of industrialization that still reflects the hope of many people today.

Forget six counties overhung with smoke
Forget the snorting steam and piston stroke
Forget the spreading of the hideous town
Think rather of London, small, and white and clean
Thames bordered by its gardens green

http://www.william-morris.co.u k/
http://www.victorianweb.org/hi story/hist4.html

Today

Today, Manchester's Victorian industrial buildings and residential buildings are converted to match the present needs – and are saved from dereliction. By 1940, the mills were silent, and warehouses were empty. Professionals, architects, engineers, and planners preserved the famous cotton mills of the industrial district of Manchester that was developed in less than 100 years during the industrial revolution.
The birth place, of the American Industrial Revolution, Blackstone Valley, Massachusetts, a National Heritage Corridor, was re-designed to preserve and restore buildings, and take care of the unique environment.
Many more examples of matching the previous achievements with the present needs are worldwide seen, but we still the ignore the negative consequences of the industrial and the modern technological progress. I think is time to broaden William Morris dream of London into a global vision for the next Industrial Revolution.

http://www.nps.gov/history/Nr/ travel/richmond/Manchester_Ind ustrial.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B lackstone_River_Valley_Nationa l_Heritage_Corridor#cite_note- 0
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S later_Mill

Tags

Claude Monet, Crystal Palace, Eiffel Tower, Garden Cities, Industrial Revolution, Unesco World Heritage, William Morris

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author avatar cnwokedi
Writing is my favorite way of learning.
architecture, psychology, biography, travel,

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author avatar James R. Coffey
27th Sep 2010 (#)

A lot of good info!

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