Rice is the most important staple food crop of India

madugundurukmini By madugundurukmini, 2nd Nov 2015 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL http://nut.bz/2r8h_zil/
Posted in Wikinut>Guides>Science>Biology>Human Biology

Rice cultivation is conditioned by temperature differences at the different phases of growth.

The rice crops in India can be grouped into two categories

Rice is the most important staple food crop of India, which feeds more than half of our population. It accounts for one – third production of food-grains in the country. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. Rice, an indigenous crop, is grown all over the country with highest concentration in northern – eastern and southern parts of the country. It occupies above 40 million hectares of land. It is mainly a tropical crop with mean temperature of 24 degrees Celsius and annual rainfall of 150 cm.

Rice cultivation is conditioned by temperature differences at the different phases of growth. The critical mean temperature for flowering and fertilisation ranges from 16 degrees Celsius 20 degrees Celsius. Whereas during ripening, the range is from 18 degrees Celsius to 32 degrees Celsius. Temperatures beyond 35 degrees Celsius affect not only grain retention, but also grain – filling. It requires ample sunshine and water. It can grow on different altitudes as long as its temperature requirements are satisfied. For example- it is grown in Kashmir at a height of 2000 m and in Kuttanad region of Kerala which is below sea- level.

Rice requires good rainfall, in the range of 150 to 300 cm. In fact, rice is mainly an irrigated crop. It requires much water both in and upon the soil. During the earlier phase of its growth, it requires 5 to 10 cm of standing water. Therefore, the monsoon lands are best suited for rice production or heavy irrigation is required. deltas, estuaries, flood plains and valleys excellent conditions for the cultivation of rice.

Upland and lowland rice
The rice crops in India can be grouped into two categories -
upland rice and lowland rice.
The upland rice
This type of rice is grown in mountainous regions. Upland rice is own in March- April and harvested in September – October.
This type of rice cultivation depends on the distribution of rainfall.
The entire crop is used locally.
Lowland rice
Lowland rice is grown on low.
Lying regions. It is sown in June and harvested in October.
This type of rice requires plenty of water during the sowing and harvesting period.
The produce is used for local consumption as well as supplied to other regions.

Milling – This removes the Yellowish husk from the grain. Traditionally, the villagers used to hit the grain in a wooden mortar with a heavy pestle. This resulted in a high percentage of broken rice. Modern milling is done by machines. Such polished rice has a glossy texture, but lacks nutrition, as much of its vitamins are lost due to excessive rubbing. After this the polished rice is graded and stored in sacks. Traditional method of removing the outer husk is by parboiling the grains and then drying them before removing the outer cover.

Tags

Crop Of India, Rice, Staple Food

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Comments

author avatar Fern Mc Costigan
3rd Nov 2015 (#)

Interesting post!

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author avatar Md Rezaul Karim
26th Dec 2015 (#)

There are varieties of rices available in Bangladesh too. We like rice to have at least two times a day!

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