The Chemistry and Types of Shampoos

denz By denz, 31st Mar 2012 | Follow this author | RSS Feed | Short URL
Posted in Wikinut>Guides>Beauty>Hair

Most all shampoos contain varying amounts of the same fatty acids. There are many types of shampoo; the plain shampoo, liquid cream shampoo, cream or paste shampoo, non-strip shampoo and liquid dry shampoo.

The Types of Shampoos

By combining an alkali with an oil or fat, shampoo soaps are formed. The oil used may be of vegetable origin such as: almond oil, peanut oil, coconut oil, olive oil castor oil and palm-nut oil.

The fat used may be: animal fat, lanolin, tallow and synthetic organic compounds.

Most all shampoos contain varying amounts of the same fatty acids. Therefore, the shampoo soap formed varies with the substances used.

The use of a harsh or highly alkaline shampoo will have an adverse or a damaging effect upon the hair. Those with a high pH factor, which are highly alkaline, are especially damaging to all types of hair.

Types of Shampoos

Plain shampoos are usually clear and transparent, may have a natural amber shade, or be colored a greenish yellow. They may contain a plain liquid soap or a deterge3nt-based product. These shampoos seldom have lanolin or other special agents used to leave a gloss on the hair. If a liquid soap is used, it should be followed by an acid rinse to counteract its alkaline reaction on the hair.

A plain shampoo may be used on virgin hair that is in good condition. A plain shampoo should never be used on lightened, toned, tinted, damaged or permanent waved hair. It will strip or fade the color and may further damage the hair.

Liquid Cream Shampoos

Liquid cream shampoos are usually semi-heavy white liquids. As a rule, they are detergent-based products in which soap or sometimes soap jelly is used as the thickening agent. Magnesium stearate is also used as a whitening agent. Cream shampoos are mostly emulsions. They often contain oily compounds, to make the hair fell silky and softer. Use this type of shampoo as directed by your instructor or manufacturer.

Cream or Paste Shampoos

Cream or paste shampoos are essentially the same as the liquid creams, except that more detergent material and more soap is used with less water. Some contain oily compounds to make the hair feel softer. Be guided by your instructor or manufacturer.

Non-Strip Shampoos

Non-strip shampoos are formulated to prevent the stripping of tints or toners from the hair. They are mild in action, contain certain conditioners and are low in alkaline content. They are also recommended for brittle, dry or damaged hair. Follow the manufacturer's directions.

Liquid Dry Shampoos

Liquid dry shampoos are cosmetic products used for cleansing the scalp and hair when the patron is prevented by illness from having a regular shampoo.

Procedure for Liquid Dry Shampoo:

1. Brush hair thoroughly-comb lightly.

2. Part hair in one-inch sections from forehead to crown and crown to nape of neck.

3. Saturate piece o cotton with the liquid, squeeze out lightly, and then rub briskly along each part. Follow by rubbing with a towel swiftly along the part. Repeat all over the head in this manner. Next, apply liquid with cotton pledge t down length of hair strands.

4. Rub the hair strands with the towel to remove soil.

5. Re-moisten hair lightly with liquid, and set hair.

Such a dry shampoo will freshen the hair and tone the scalp without endangering the patron. (When using any type of shampoo, read carefully and follow the manufacturer's directions).

Other Types of Shampoos

1. Shampoo for damaged hair - for dry, brittle, over-lightened or tinted hair, the cosmetologists can use either:

A one or two whole egg mixture applied to the hair and scalp in the same way as for a regular shampoo. Use only tepid water, as hot water will congeal the egg on the hair.

2. A commercial shampoo containing a small amount of egg. Apply as directed by the manufacturer.

3. Any other commercial shampoo (such as non-strip shampoo) which contains ingredients helpful to damaged hair.

Highlighting Shampoos

Castile and olive oil shampoos - contain coconut oil soap solution, dissolved flakes of castle soap and a small amount of olive oil to prevent the excessive drying produced by the high alkali content of the soap.

It is neutral and mild in action, provided it contains a high grade Castile soap. Be guided by your instructor.

Tincture of green soap - cleanses, but it contains a large amount of alcohol which often dries the hair and scalp excessively after prolonged use. This effect can be avoided by gently massaging a small amount of warm olive oil into the scalp.

Medicated shampoos - these are usually a liquid or jelly type shampoo that contain some medicinal agent such as sulfur, tar, cresol, a small percentage of phenol or some other antiseptic agent.

Therapeutic medicated shampoos - contain special chemicals or drugs which are very effective in reducing excessive dandruff. They must be used only with a physician's prescription and instruction.

Methods of Dissolving Soap Curds

Minerals are present in all kinds of water; the more minerals, the harder the water. In soaps, they are fatty acids. These two combine to form a soap scum which results in a lack of brilliance and difficulty in combing the hair.

It is impossible to remove all the soap curds from the hair with ordinary water. Vinegar, lemon or acid rinses are effective in removing soap residue from the hair. They separate hair and make it easier to comb.

Special rinses now on the market actually remove soap curds from the hair, thus making combing easier, and at the same time adding brilliance to the hair. Follow the manufacturer's directions


Beauty, Chemistry, Hair, Hair Care, Health, Olive Oil, Shampoo, Shopping, Soap, Types Of Shampoo

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